Root

Healthy plant starts with healthy root. Old saying says that never should forget invisible parts of the plant. How the root is the effecting on the health of the plant and on the production?

Root
The root has 4 important functions:
Коренот на растението има 4 важни функции: fixation, transport of solutes and water, storage and producing of hormones. Insufficient work of one of these functions will led to distributed growth of the plant above the surface. On other hand conditions above the ground will influence on the root negatively. Bad transpiration can led to suffocation of the root because the root will stay long time with low level of oxygen.

Rhizosphere
Functioning of the root and the plant is under influence by direct surrounding of the root called rhizosphere. Inside the rhizosphere organic and inorganic nutrients are exchanged between root and the soil. Availability of these elements depends of chemical and physical composition of the soil, but from the activity between the root and micro organisms in the soil.
The composition of the rhizosphere is also effecting the resistance against diseases.

Resistance of the soil
The fungi inside the soil can be saprophage (non harmful) and pathogenic (harmful). The intensioty where these fungi are active depends of different chemical and biological factors. The growth of the fungi is under influence of acid environment, temperature and the level of humidity of the soil. Most of pathogenic fungi have optimal growth on low pH (<5,5) level and high temperatures >20°C.

Saprophage fungi can protect the root. For example Trichoderma fungi makes physical barrier which will protect the roots from the other fungi. Some other saprophage fungi can prevent pathogenic fungi to grow decreasing the level of nutrition of the soil.
In more cases chemical dis balance of rhizosphere results with good situation for pathogenic fungi.

Adjustments
Root system of the plant is capable to adjust on the surrounding. This is not only for the availability of the water and free minerals, but in cases of deficiency of of nutrition elements in the soil and their low solubility and availability. For example: when the phosphate is not available or not available at all (in case of high pH level, the root will release acids which will increase the solubility of the phosphate. The plant has ability to change the morphology of the root. When the root grows in soil saturated with water inside tissue if the root will be changed in more open structure in order to increase efficiency of diffusion of oxygen. For these adjustments the root needs a lot of energy which will reduce the growth of the plant. That’s why it is important to control the chemical and the balance of the water in the soil.