Role of manganese (Mn) in plant culture

Manganese (Mn) is an important micro nutrient and is required by plants in the second greatest quantity compared to iron. Like any other element, it can have a limiting factor on plant growth if it is deficient or toxic in plant tissue. It is similar to iron in many ways, and manganese deficiency or toxicity is often mistaken for iron deficiency or toxicity.
Function: Manganese is used in plants as a major contribution to various biological systems in including photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen assimilation. Manganese is also involved in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, root cell elongation and resistance to root pathogens.
Deficiency: Manganese deficiency symptoms, which often look like those of iron deficiency, appear as interveinal chlorosis (yellow leaves with green veins) on the young leaves, sunken spots that appear in the chlorotic areas between the veins. Plant growth may also be reduced and stunted. Manganese deficiency can occur when the pH of the growing medium exceeds 6.5, because it is tied up and unavailable for uptake. Deficiency can also occur from low fertilizers application rates.
Toxicity: Manganese toxicity symptoms begin with the burning of the tips and margins of older leaves or as reddish-brown spots across older leaves. Severe toxicity may result in spots becoming more numerous and larger, forming patches on the older leaves. At pH below 5,5, manganese is very soluble and toxicity symptoms are probable. Manganese toxicity can occur if the fertilizer application rate is excessive.
Similarities to Iron: Manganese and iron are closely related, so manganese competes with iron and, to a lesser extent, with zinc, copper, magnesium and calcium for uptake by the plant. Maintain the manganese to iron ratio at 1:2 for best results, and test the growing medium to verify that all nutrient levels and pH are within their normal ranges. Manganese and iron have similar visual deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Manganese and iron deficiencies both appear as interveinal chlorosis of the young leaves. Iron and manganese toxicities have identical symptoms, so it is difficult to tell them apart.
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