Nematodes – soil parasites

Nematodes are the most numerous multi-cellular animals on earth. Only a bunch of soil can contain thousands, millions or even billions of microscopic “worms” (in the world there are nearly 20,000 described species, and it is assumed that the actual number is about one million). Nematodes are parasitic species (parasite insects, plants or animals), and there are so-called “free” not connected to a host, which include those fed bacteria, fungi, or other types of nematodes. Because of the huge number of species and major damage to the challenge, we must accept the real need for their regular and quality control methods.
Nematodes are structurally simple organisms (Adullam have approximately 1,000 somatic cells and a few hundred cells in the reproductive function activities). The morphological appearance of nematodes is easiest to describe as “pipe in pipe” because of the channel which extends along the entire length of the body (from the oral orifice until the rectum, located in tale part). Although very simple organisms still have digestive, nervous, excretory and reproductive systems, but no circulatory and respiratory system. The range of their size is very small (especially in plant parasitic species) and ranges from microscopic 0.3 mm up to 10 mm (very rare species exceeding 10 mm in length). Larger sizes are in animal parasitic species and many rare curiosities can only mention the example of a giant copy of the parasitic nematode Placentonema gigantisma whales 8 meters long, which was discovered in the placenta of the host.
The large number of nematode species means that among them there are many differences, but there are some basic features that apply to all. The males are usually smaller than females, all types of nematodes reproduce by laying eggs (sexual reproduction), and cross-fertilization between species, hermaphroditic and parthenogenesis are commonplace. During the life cycle (depending on humidity and temperature of the soil) nematodes are “moving” vertically in the soil. When the present unfavorable conditions for them, they descend deeper into the soil, and in favorable conditions go to the surface when doing damage to plants.
For farmers, of course, are the most important nematodes that parasite plants, which cause harms the quality and quantity of the yield. There is virtually no plant species not targeted by nematodes, regardless of whether the crop plants or weeds (potatoes, tomatoes, corn, alfalfa, soybeans, fruit species, vines cultivated grasslands, ornamental plants, forest plants etc.). Plants that are attacked by nematodes lag in their development compared to the rest. The root system of these plants undergoing destructive changes that root hairs thicken, sometimes the size of small “potatoes”, which destroys their normal function (adsorption), and consequently the plant lags in development until it is completely dry. One plot is rarely fully engulfed in attack nematodes, but always it comes to business with a circular shape (“islands”) that gradually spread and only vegetation in late stage of culture can lead to a merger of these hot spots in major parts.
Because of all this, in itself leads to the conclusion that in modern agricultural production the suppression of nematodes is a necessary measure. Perennial crops have a handicap in terms of suppression of nematodes, because it is difficult entering soil nematicide. There are several products (chemical and organic), which can be used to suppress nematodes. Products affected nematode-static and nematicide which means that paralyzes nematodes, and they cannot penetrate into the root zone, unable to feed and multiply and eventually die.
The best way to protect the strong attack of the nematode’s turn to growing plants hydroponically.
For more information contact an expert Advisory Team HORTICENTAR.